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Developing an Awareness on the Importance of Good Diet for Well Being

The United States is facing each year with increasing incidence of health problems, and this is alarming to individuals, the general public, and the entire country as health insurance, and government spending is increasing. Health care providers are starting to emphasize preventive measures, as most of these health problems can be prevented. About 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity (Yanovski, & Yanoski, 2011). This number is on the rise, and the need for intervention is urgent. The purpose of this study is to highlight that many diseases are derived from poor diet, and they can be prevented by making healthy food choices. Dornelas (2008), states that obesity is associated with many risks including cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, reflux disease, stress instability, and more. Reducing the amount of calories can also have negative consequences. Eating disorders such as anorexia have been linked to the need to avoid being obese, and this has its own health risks. Anorexia nervosa increases the risk of osteoporosis, organ closure, heart muscle contraction, kidney failure and incidence of irreversible brain damage (Berk, 2010). Too much or too little consumption of food has many risk factors. Another possible side effect of this disorder is the psychological impact that the patient has.

If the body mass index (BMI) is not within the range of 18.5 to 25 kg / m2, then the person is said to be at risk for disease. If under 18.5 kg / m2, the person is at risk for bone thinning osteoporosis that can cause bone loss. People who experience anorexia nervosa decline in this category after losing 25 to 50 percent of their body weight, and a lack of food to the body can damage the nutrients they need to maintain. Anorexic individuals stop menstruation because the body needs about 15 percent of body fat to menstruate. Malnutrition causes fragile nails, pale skin, fine dark hair in the body and extreme sensitivity to cold temperatures (Berk, 2010). If this continues without treatment, the organs start to shut down and can cause death. When the BMI is over 25 kg / m2, then the person is said to be overweight, and anything more than 30 kg / m2 is considered obese. The more obese a person is, the greater the risk of association with diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus, heart disease and so on.

The body needs 6 to 11 servings of carbohydrates, 3 to 5 servings of vegetables, 2 to 4 servings of fruit, protein, oil, fat and sugar daily. The average calorie required by the body is 2000 Cal. These can be adjusted based on height, gender, and activity. An inactive lifestyle requires less calories while an athlete or an active lifestyle needs more. It is important for the general public to know the calorie content of the food they eat. Carbohydrates and proteins contain 4 Cal / gram, while fat / oil contains 9 Cal / gram. People consume more fat / oil than they need daily, and one can see that fat is more than twice the carbohydrate and protein combined. When the body does not have enough protein, it causes a disease called kwashiorkor, and a lack of calorie intake in a disease called marasmus. Despite the high calorie intake leads to high cholesterol, type II diabetes, arteriosclerosis, obesity and more.

Many scholars have speculated on obesity, as some researchers believe it has a genetic origin, as well as the environment. Genetic origins speak of a lack of fat receptors in the body, which slows down fat metabolism. Aspects of the environment deal with individual types of nutrition, and lack of physical activity. The environmental approach to addressing these genetic defects is to reduce calorie intake, increase physical activity, education, and social support. A study conducted by Rooney, Mathiason and Schauberger (2011), examined obesity predictors in birth cohorts. A cohort of approximately 795 mothers and 802 children was followed during pregnancy for 15 years. The characteristics of mothers and children are checked to find any predictions of obesity. They found that increasing pregnancy rates, weight gain in infants, smoking in pregnancy, and especially maternal obesity were the strongest predictors of childhood obesity. The results of this study may be genetic or due to the fact that the child was exposed to the same type of food as the mother, and this pattern of eating continued with the child.

Some theorists also argue that the cause of obesity is a lack of will. Boutelle, et al. (2011), reviewed two treatments that have been reported to reduce food intake in the absence of hunger in obese and obese children. Overweight or obese participants were selected from schools, day care centers, and parents who reported eating children with no hunger to participate. This study is divided into two groups. The first group is an awareness training group, parents are asked to use monitoring to increase awareness of hunger and tranquility and their coping skills to manage their eating habits when they are not hungry. The second group is the lead exposure treatment group. These are described as cravings, which are eaten when not physically hungry. In this treatment, children learn strategies to recognize their desires and suppress them until demand decreases. The results show that both treatments were reduced by eating less when hungry, and as a result, weight loss decreased. This means that not every food you eat is caused by starvation.

Parenting style can affect the way your child eats. Hoerr, et al. (2009) with 715 children and their parents (43% African American, 29% Hispanic and 28% White) with food intake in some groups calculated from three days of food recovery from 3pm to bedtime. Hoerr et al. found that children from authoritarian families consume more fruits and vegetables than children from inexperienced or unoccupied parents. This shows the impact of parenting on children. When the parents' parents less influence, children have no guidance in doing the right thing. Children need guidance in making the right choices in life; including proper nutrition. This is why early education is important to start at home.

Dornelas (2008) found that as obesity increases, so does the reference to weight loss surgery; because the need to lose weight is very important because of the high risks associated with it such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis. Psychotherapy needs to be trained to address the causes of obesity, which is linked to other psychological problems. Obesity is a disease that needs to be treated, both physically and psychologically. Dong, Sanchez, and Price (2004), studied the relationship between obesity and depression in nuclear families among siblings and parents with a total of 1730 European Americans and 373 African Americans. Many variables have been measured, and they have found that depression is higher with increases in body mass index (BMI), across gender and ethnic groups, even after controlling for the presence of chronic disease. The offspring of depressed parents are also more likely to become depressed.

In addition, predicting type II diabetes in individuals at risk, BMI, or hip size may help. When fat accumulates in the middle of the abdomen, circulating fat can cause insulin resistance, as fat is less likely to cause insulin resistance when accumulated in other parts of the body. Tsenkova, Carr, Schoeller, and Reff (2011) in weight discrimination were considered to increase the relationship between central adiposity and non-diabetic glycemic control and their results indicate that the hip-to-waist ratio (adipose deposition center) has been associated with significant increases in HbA1c (monitoring diabetes control long term). It has also been shown that weight discrimination increases psychosocial stress and thus increases HbA1c as a result of stress. Losing weight can help eliminate type II diabetes.

The psychological impact of a poor diet on suffering individuals is numerous. People with anorexia nervosa have body image disorders, they are always worried, they have poor impulse control, inhibit emotions, and they avoid close relationships outside the family (Berk, 2010). Anorexic individuals do not look so thin that they see a different image of themselves in the mirror, as this indicates that the disorder is not only physical, but psychological. Although thinly admired, anorexic individuals are looked down upon as not very attractive. They are parents of anorexic teenagers who may be very controlling and emotionally distant from their children. In pursuit of absolute silence and perfection, these individuals are afraid of losing control, so that they are constantly nervous and about six percent end up committing suicide.

To prevent anorexia nervosa problems, parents should emphasize the need for a healthy diet, and not criticize their children's physical appearance. They need to make regular family meals; Physical activity, as emotional and social support for their children is crucial to healthy children's growth. Most anorexic people are overweight or obese before the search for solutions that fall into this category. It's not how the media portrays the important deficit, but how parents make their children feel. When children have high levels of confidence and self-esteem and parental approval, it is difficult for peers or the media to change it in children. Godart, et al. (2006) studied multidimensional treatment for anorexia nervosa, including counseling patients and parents, but not the entire family. The results show that patients who receive therapy with their parents have better outcomes than those who receive individual therapy. This shows how parents can help their children feel good about themselves.

Fat people face many challenges like those with eating disorders, because they are socially discriminated against when compared to their normal weight. They are less attractive, which makes it harder to find a partner. Employers find it harder to hire obese workers for fear of high medical expenses caused by obesity. With this social isolation, obese individuals are more likely to become depressed. Although studies by Goodman and Must (2011) have shown that obese youth in their sample do not have high depressive symptoms, other studies support an increase in depressive symptoms in obese individuals. In relation to obesity to depression, Dong et al. (2004), found that obesity is associated with depression, even after controlling for chronic physical illness. Dornelas, (2008) reports low self-esteem, poor body image, social discrimination and workplace bullying, experienced by individuals who are heavier than usual. It is social abuse that often causes depression; those with social support who feel good about themselves may not feel pressured.

Women are more likely to be negatively perceived as overweight, and this makes women more difficult to adjust to socially. It is a social stigma that causes women to have a harder time coping with depression than their male counterparts. The psychological impact of obesity is worse among women, according to Ferguson, Kornblet and Muldoon (2009). In this study, women were found to have a negative effect on men. They have lower quality of life, unsatisfactory sex life and more public difficulties, although these women have lower BMI than men. This is the kind of cultural norm that women need to look more attractive and attractive than men, so any woman who does not conform to this norm is being bullied.

Fat children are often bullied at school. Other children ridicule obese children, because they think these children have no control over their eating habits. So it's not that obese individuals are depressed because of their obesity, but because of how others make them feel. Flodmark's (2005) study in obese children found that obese children in the community with social support were depressed and did not find that their obesity had psychological effects, but that a clinical sample of obese children showed low self-esteem, and poor quality of life. Thus, it can be suggested that it is not obesity that causes depression, but rather the attitude toward obesity that most leads to depression. To avoid the psychological impact of obesity, the community can support patients socially without discrimination, so they worry about the medical impact of obesity and not social aspects.

Arguments can be made regarding the causes of eating disorders. In the case of anorexia nervosa, it is caused by compulsive fear of getting fat, especially in adolescents and young adults. This problem is mostly seen in the western world, where admiration for depletion is the norm. These disorders have a psychological basis because they suffer from distorted body image, in which they see themselves as fat even after suffering from malnutrition. At the same time, they work hard to gain weight. According to Berk (2010), about six percent of anorexic individuals die from suicide or physical complications. This happens in the family is physical appearance and social acceptance is emphasized, where perfect achievement and deception are considered good. These patients work hard to achieve the ideal image, but may not be satisfied with their body image no matter how hard they try.

Obesity is most common in people with an inactive lifestyle who earn more calories than they need to. It is more so in industrialized countries where technology has made life easier with little or no manpower to do the work. Transportation also helps ease obesity, since people no longer walk from place to place or ride bicycles, instead they drive from place to place, by train, by getting on the city bus, as this reduces physical activity which contributes to energy expenditure. A study conducted by Ersoy, Imamoglu, Tuncel, Erturk, and Ercan (2005) in three different districts found that people with low socioeconomic status, less education, less active professions and unemployed men had higher BMI. This is because these people have a more active lifestyle than those with high socioeconomic status or those with jobs.

Another group where obesity tends to exist with a less fortunate economy. In this group, providing the basic necessities of life is difficult, with very little money being spent on healthy food. Cheap food is unhealthy while healthy choices are expensive to afford. Juby and Meyer (2011) state that policies and proposals make it difficult for poor families to buy nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables, at the same time, cheaper foods tend to have more calories and provide less nutrients. They call this obesity-related obesity. In a study conducted by Ludwig et al. (2011), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) vouchers randomly assigned to 4498 women with children from 1994 to 1998, 1788 were told that vouchers could only be redeemed if they found housing in low-income areas by canceling their offers, and 1312 specifications and cancellations were also offered to them. One thousand three hundred and ninety-eight individuals were selected as control groups with no opportunity offered. A follow-up study from 2008 to 2010 showed that the prevalence of BMI was greater than 35 and that of type II diabetes was greater in the neighborhood than in other groups.

Ersoy et al. (2005) recognize that people of higher socioeconomic status and education eat more fruits and vegetables, and use more vegetables, olive oil or corn in their cooking. This shows the need for education and the impact of understanding the benefits of a good diet, and also has the money to finance it. This study also emphasizes that women's education is more effective in controlling obesity for future generations. Another study by Colineau and Paris (2011) supported the influence of family involvement as a collective goal of healthy eating, and feedback increased significantly with maternal involvement. This may be true because of the domestic role women play in the home. Women are largely responsible for grocery shopping, cooking and nurturing. If they make these positive changes, and teach their children early on how to eat properly, then less obesity can be created in their adulthood.

Treatment - it is essential for healthcare providers to emphasize the importance of a healthy diet to parents, and for parents to start developing good eating habits at home. Parents can instill discipline in their children to make better food choices. A diet that is low in fat and sugar in the diet pyramid should be followed. However, weight loss advocates believe that protein-rich foods help suppress appetite, and care should be taken following such recommendations, as the body requires a balanced diet from all categories of food to function properly. The emphasis is on reducing certain foods and healthy choices, rather than excluding essential nutrients that the body needs to function properly. Individual trainers are required to keep a record of what they eat, which is another way to help them monitor the quantity and quality of food they eat. Thirty to 35 percent of obese people believe that they eat less than they do (Blaine & Rodman, 2007). People don't have to go on a diet and feel less comfortable with what they like, but they should be encouraged to choose foods of the type they like but the size and calories they eat.

The need for exercise should be emphasized for everyone, not just obese individuals. Exercise helps the body to transport sugar throughout the body, maintain a healthy weight, and help prevent insulin from the body. Van Baak (2010) suggests that physical activity is not just training; it is the movement of the body that produces energy expenditure on rest energy. Physical activity is also important in reducing the effects of overweight genetic susceptibility. Physical activity like Van Baak (2010) is what is required not only to exercise, as it can be done by doing chores, walking instead of driving, not sitting and watching television, one can only do leisure activities. Exercise offers physical and psychological benefits that restrict eating (Berk, 2010).

The government is trying to help fight obesity by establishing a policy based on what has been done to reduce obesity. Unfortunately, most of these policies do not prove to have any meaning. Recours, Hanula, Travert, Sabiston and Griffet (2011) found that adolescents 'adolescents' social behavior Motivation for physical activity increased significantly from 2001 to 2008, despite the government's seven-year health strategy for nutrition. One can conclude that it is not what the government does to help eliminate obesity, but it is the education of parents and involvement at home that really helps more children. If children are not informed of the health benefits, or are not supported or encouraged by their parents to participate in physical activity, then their willingness to participate may not be there.

The mentor must teach individuals the cognitive skills and strategies of coping with coping situations. Old adaptations are necessary because statistics show that most people gain weight after one year of losing and those who do not smoke, never recover completely. Boutelle et al. (2011) used behavioral strategies to address children who are eating when they are not hungry. This step must be followed to achieve this success. There is a need to increase the length of therapy for these individuals, to enable them to develop new habits and skills to deal with their situation. The need to support these people is very important, this is done by encouraging them and not being critical of them, as this will make them feel good about themselves and help them maintain their normal weight.

It is necessary to educate people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and obese people on the implications of these diseases. Healthcare providers are trying to bring this awareness to the public, and fortunately organizations like the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASA) are using education enhancements to combat the epidemic and create awareness about the implications of the disease. Schools should also include nutrition studies in their curriculum, so that children can take home lessons and educate their parents who have no prior knowledge of good nutrition.

So many studies have been done on eating disorders and obesity, and these studies have focused on ethnicities, cultures and outcomes that are still troubling each other. There are signs that genetics increases the probability of anorexia nervosa or obesity, but this is not seen unless environmental factors allow. The Rooney et al. (2011) studied obesity predictors in birth cohorts, and found that maternal obesity is the strongest predictor of childhood obesity. The limitations of the study were that Rooney did not analyze children outside their biological home, to distinguish if obesity was caused by the genes they inherited from their mother, or possibly obesity caused by the same diet that mothers ate. Although some studies have found that adoptive children are more likely to maintain the same weight as biological families, one can explore this further in Fernandez et al. (2008). Does nature overcome preservation?

Flodmark's (2005) study of happy obese children is very interesting, as this study shows that obesity is not the cause of depression, but rather the social treatment of obese people who are usually the cause of depression. If society treats obese individuals in the same way, overweight individuals are treated, the case of depressed individuals will be similar in obesity and obesity. Depression may lead to an increase in size, because they are obese individuals avoid social prejudice against them, they may avoid outside activities that may help them lose weight. This is something that you need to learn socially and emotionally individually.

Finally, this literature review examines the problems faced by poor nutrition, financial burdens, and their impact on our health. It explores the causes of anorexia nervosa and obesity, and previous studies on this topic have shown that obesity has a genetic basis, but the environment paves the way for its manifestation. The Boutelle et al. (2011) show that behavioral strategies can be used to combat hunger when not hungry. There are many ways to combat obesity and related diseases, through physical activity, healthy eating, social support, and having a positive body image.

In conclusion, the evidence shows that families working together to maintain a healthy diet succeed more than individuals who work alone. There are physical and mental support needs for those who are trying to gain or lose weight. Support should start from home. The above study highlights the positive effects that families have on weight loss. Most problems start at home, and solutions need to start at home as well. Families need to have dinner together, discuss the importance of healthy food and incorporate physical activity into their agenda.

Moreover, there is a need for social support for these individuals. Supporting them socially can help them psychologically to avoid depression, anxiety and low self-esteem. Provisions can be made to accommodate them with stylish clothing in the store; this approach can help them feel better about themselves. It is the social support of family and friends that helps these individuals maintain a healthy weight after the intervention ends.

References

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Colineau, N., & Paris, C. (20011). Motivating reflections on family health: The use of goal setting and customized feedback. Customized Modeling and User Interaction, 21 (4-5), 341-376.

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Dornelas, E.A. (2008). Morbid obesity. In EA Dornelas (Ed.), Psychotherapy with heart patients: Cardiology in practice (pp. 173-185). Washington, DC USA: American Psychological Association.

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