Patients' Complaints and Methods of Physical Examination of Kidney

Kidney examination is impossible without a Laboratory test. Therefore in this article, the physical examination data and interpretation of t...

Kidney examination is impossible without a Laboratory test. Therefore in this article, the physical examination data and interpretation of the Urine test will be put together for easy use. All symptoms in the case of kidney disorders are divided into kidneys and kidneys.

Kidney symptoms are clinical signs that directly indicate Kidney disturbance and any part of the collecting system. They are pain in the lumbar region (tenderness of the vertebral hemorrhage, pain), arthritis and urinary bladder syndrome. Only children after 2 years can complain of pain in the Lumbar region because at this time, the cortical tissue and the renal capsule have reached their maturity. "Kidney" pain is caused by an extended capsule. The pain can be diagnosed by renal palpation and a sign of pasternasky. Often, children between the ages of 2 and 5 complain of abdominal pain in cases of kidney problems. In infants, the "Kidney" pain can be seen as a continuous, irritable glow. Dysuria means urinary problems. The term is most commonly used as a synonym for painful urine, but it also includes changes such as:

• Frequently or less frequently

• Urgent matters

• Tightness is incomplete

• Enuresis

The frequency of urination is age dependent and closely related to fluid intake and surrounding climate (hot or cold). Bladder emptying occurs more frequently in the early stages, when it equates to an x-3 feeding. For example, a 6-month-old baby empties a bladder 5x3 = 15 times a day. At age 1, drought ranges from 9 to 12 times a day, then decreases to 6-8 times in 3 years, 5-6 times in 10 and 3-4 in adolescents. Normal limits are within 1 to 3 times more or less.

Enuresis (diabetes) is physiological in children up to 1.5-2 years old. Enuresis can be anytime and night. Children who are trained by the toilet may develop diarrhea in the case of urinary tract infections or nervous disorders.

Urine change syndrome includes interpretation of qualitative and quantitative laboratory data of Urine tests. Urine is the "mirros" of the kidney system. It reflects the changes in the kidney function process and collects structures and other systems.

Additional symptoms of the kidney

These are the symptoms, the cause of which is kidney trouble, but the pathological changes that are affecting the organ and other systems. This is:

• Edema develops due to fluid retention and intracapillary and tissue hydrostatic pressure. Visual evidence of fluid accumulation occurs when the amount of large interstitial fluid increases by more than 15%. The benefits of renal edema are:

1. localization (swelling of the face, especially around the eyes);

2. Manifestation time (they are clearer in the morning and raised during the day).

3. Inflammation (as the condition of the patient spreads edema to the extremities and organs (labial or scrotal swelling), abdomen (ascites), thoracic cavity (hydrothorax) Intestinal mucosa edema causes diarrhea, anopathy, weak intestinal absorption. called anasarka.

4. Surface and consistency (skin on the swelling is pale, warm and soft with a touch).

• Hypertension

• Heart disease

Skin pallor is most common in cases of nephritis and acute poststructural focus glomerulonephritis. When chronic renal failure develops into petals it is associated with decreased erythropoietin production and the development of anemia

• Toxic syndromes include fever, irritation, anorexia, fatigue, irritation, fatigue, headache and vomiting, In infants, renal disorders can be diagnosed with nutritional problems and failure to develop.

Getting a patient's health history is very important and must be done carefully. Observe recent weight loss, kidney dysfunction, facts related to recent evidence of streptococcal infection, exposure or consumption of toxic chemicals (including heavy metals, carbon tetrachloride, or other organic solvents, nephrotoxic drugs). Obtain accurate information on fluid intake and production, thirst, urine appearance, reduced quantity, pediatric behavior during urination or doubt, urgency, diabetes in toilet trained children. Poor odor in urine, direction and force, size of scrotum, For adolescents, it is important to know the evidence of sexually transmitted diseases, type of treatment. Ask teenage boys about testic self-examination. Report on case history of last Urinalisis date.

Physical evaluation includes visual examination, palpation and percussion. During visual inspection, detect evidence for:

• Fluid retention: presence of edema, swelling, abdominal enlargement of the abdomen in the umbilicus. Swelling examination is done by pressing with the tip of the finger; on the limbs, face, sacred area, lower abdomen. Note significant, redness, mild swelling in the lumbar region.

• Pain Syndrome: Persistent ingestion, irritation, characterized position (child is in pain area with legs bent at hip and knee joint and holding near body), behavior decreases.

• Pallor

• Drinking signs

• Extraction of the urinary bladder in case of obstruction of the bladder neck.

• Respiratory breathing in the skin, nose bleeding, Urine odor and ammonium from the mouth, muscle tremors in case of chronic kidney failure.

The kidneys should be stretched vertically and horizontally. Usually they can feel older in infants and toddlers. Usually, kidneys are not felt in infants and children. Normally, the kidneys cannot be felt in older children except in the case of enlargement more than 1.5-2 times and nephroptosis. Assess the shape, size, consistency, mobility, degree of ptosis (palpable kidneys, portable kidneys:: transferring "kidneys" and pain during palpation.

Kidney overload helps to assess Pasternasky symptoms by hitting lightly in the back corner. Report the results as positive on the right, positive on the left or on both sides, negative. Percussion for the upper border of the bladder begins from the umbilicus and descends. Usually tedious sounds are not found when the bladder is removed. The opposite findings are evidence of bladder neck obstruction.



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Diet O Diet: Patients' Complaints and Methods of Physical Examination of Kidney
Patients' Complaints and Methods of Physical Examination of Kidney
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