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The Development of Old Age and Related Issues

In other traditional Chinese and Asian cultures, parents are highly respected and cared for. The Igabo people of Eastern Nigeria depend on their age and their involvement in the care of children and the administration of tribal affairs (Shelton, A. in Kalish R. Uni Michigan 1969).

In Eskimo culture, grandma is pushed to the ice to die as soon as she becomes useless.

Westerners today often mimic some degree of Eskimo culture, only "ice streams" have names like "Sunset Vista" and so on. The younger generation no longer gives their parents status and leaves them

always in danger of becoming a social norm.

There is a tendency to remove parents from their home and put them in custody. To some extent, governments provide home care services to prevent or delay them, but the motivation may be greater

to make money from people.

In Canada and some parts of the US parents are being used as a grandparent in a child care agency.


Is it aging?

Aging: Aging is a natural phenomenon that refers to changes that occur throughout life and creates structural and functional differences between younger and older generations.

Gerontology: Gerontology is the study of aging and includes science, psychology and sociology.

Geriatrics: A relatively new medical field in advanced health problems.

Social aging: Refers to social habits and the role of individuals in relation to their culture and society. As social maturity increases individuals often experience significant decline in social interaction.

Biological aging: Refers to physical changes in the body system over the next decade. It may start long before the individual reaches the age of 65 years.

Cognitive aging: Refers to the ability to assimilate new information and learn new behaviors and skills.


Eric Erikson (Youth and life cycle. Children 7: 43-49 Mch / April 1960) develops the "stage and stage" theory of humans

development involving 8 stages after each birth involving a basic dichotomy that represents the best case and the worst case outcome. Below is a dichotomy and its development:

Prenatal stage - concept for birth.

1. Baby. Birth to 2 years - basic trust versus basic distrust. Hope.

2. Early childhood, 3 to 4 years old - autonomy versus self-doubt / shame. I will.

3. Play age, 5 to 8 years - guilty initiative. Purpose.

4. School age, 9 to 12 - industry versus low. Competence.

5. Teenagers, 13 to 19 - identity rather than identity confusion. Loyalty.

6. Young adults - intimacy and isolation. Love.

7. Adults, generativity versus self-absorption. Care.

8. Mature age - Ego Integrity vs despair. Wisdom.

The older level, which is level 8, begins at retirement and continues throughout one's life. Achieving the integrity of the ego is a sign of maturity and failure to reach this level is an indication of poor development in the early stages of life.

Ego Integrity: It means coming to accept one's life and reflect it positively. According to Erikson, reach

integrity means accepting one's full self and coming to terms with death. Accepts responsibility for one's life and can review it

the past with satisfaction is important. The inability to do this leads to despair and the individual begins to fear death. If good equilibrium is achieved at this stage, wisdom is developed.

Psychological and personality aspects:

Aging has psychological implications. In addition to acknowledging our recognition that we are aging is probably one of the deepest shocks we receive. Once we pass the invisible line from year to year we are the bench for the rest of the game. We are no longer our "old age" but are instead classified as "old", or "elderly." How we deal with the changes we face and emphasize the changing status depends on our basic personality. Here are 3 basic personality types that have been identified. It may be too big, but it does make a point about personality:

a. Competent people - those who appear to have the resources for self-renewal. They may be dedicated to a goal or idea and are committed to continuing productivity. This seems to protect them even in the face of physiological aging.

b. coordinated - people who are rigid and less adaptable but supported by power, prestige or well-structured routines. But if their condition changes drastically, they become victims of psychiatric disorders.

c. anomaly. These are people who have no clear internal values ​​or vision of life protection. People like this have been described as resigning early and they may decline quickly.

Summary of old age pressure.

a. Retirement and income reduced. Most people rely on work for personal values, identities and social interactions. Forced retirement can decline.

b. Fear of invalidation and death. The likelihood of a victim becoming a disease without recovery is ongoing

a source of anxiety. When someone has a heart attack or stroke, the pressure gets worse.

Some people face death with relaxation, often psychologically supported by religion or philosophy. Other people may welcome death as a cause for suffering or insolvency and with little concern for human life or existence. Still others face the impending death of the great suffering of which they have no ego defense.

c. Isolation and loneliness. Older people face the inevitable loss of loved ones, friends and contemporaries. Losing a partner who relies on friendship and moral support is sad. Children grow up, get married and get busy or move on. Memory deficits, visual and aural disorders may work to make social interactions difficult. And if this

then it leads to a weak view and a stubborn attitude so social interaction decreases and the individual may not use the channel for the remaining social activities.

d. Reduction of sexual function and physical attractiveness. Kinsey et al, in their Sexual Behavior in Human Man,

(Phil., Saunders, 1948) found that there was a gradual decline in sexual activity with increasing age and a satisfactory pattern of sexual activity could continue into the older age. People with aging also need to adapt to the loss of sexual attractiveness in a society that places extreme emphasis on sexual attractiveness. Adjusting the self-image and self-esteem concept can be very difficult to do.

e. Forces tend to lose their self-esteem. Many of the older generation's experiences have little to do with young people's problems and parents lose their involvement in decision making in their work and family settings. Many parents are seen as an unwanted burden and their children secretly want them to die so that they can be free of burdens and experience financial help or benefits. Older citizens can be pressured into their role as parents with all of this reflected in their self-esteem.

4 Key Categories of Problems or Requirements:



Revenue maintenance.

Interpersonal relationships.


Physiological Changes: Catabolism (breakdown of protoplasm) overcomes anabolism (protoplasm formation). All body systems are affected and repair systems are slowing down. The process of aging occurs at different rates in different individuals.

Physical appearance and other changes:

Loss of subcutaneous fat and less elastic skin results in wrinkles, sagging and loss of body contouring. The joints harden and become painful and the range of joint movements is limited, general

mobility decreases.

Respiratory changes:

Increased fibrous tissue on the chest wall and lungs leads to respiratory and restriction of oxygen consumption. Older people are more likely to have low respiratory infections while younger people have upper respiratory infections.

Nutrient changes:

Tooth loss and loss of teeth can reduce the comfort and convenience of eating. The taste of the atmosphere means that the food tends to be unpleasant and this should be taken into account by the guard. Digestive changes occur due to lack of exercise (stimulate the gut) and decrease digestive juice production. Constipation and indigestion may result. Financial problems can cause older people to consume less carbohydrates than the more expensive protein and vegetable foods, which exacerbates the problem, leading to reduced vitamin intake and problems such as anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.

Adapting to stress:

We all face stress at all ages. Adaptation to stress requires energy use. The 3 main pressure phases are:

1. Initial alarm reaction. 2. Match. 3. Tiredness

and if pressure continues to damage tissue or aging occurs. Older people have a lifetime of stress. Energy reserves are declining and older people are under pressure earlier than younger people. Stress is cumulative throughout life. Research results, including experiments with animals, indicate that each stress causes us to be more vulnerable to the next, and although we may think we have "recovered" 100% of the stress each time we give it. Furthermore, stress is a psycho-biological meaning

type of pressure is irrelevant. Physical stress can lead to further psychological stress and vice versa. Rest does not fully recover after stress. Care workers need to be careful and aware of things that can put pressure on parents.

COGNITIVE CHANGES Habitual Behavior:

Sigmund Freud notes that after the age of 50, the treatment of neurosis through psychoanalysis is difficult because the opinions and reactions of older people are relatively constant and difficult to change.

Behavior learned: This is a behavior that has been learned so well and repeatedly that it becomes automatic, such as typing or running down the stairs. Trained behavior is difficult to change. If one has lived a long life, one may have a consistent pattern and attitude.

Compulsive Behavior: The habits and attitudes learned in finding ways to overcome frustration and difficulty are difficult to break. Stress reduction behaviors such as nail biting, non-stop breathing, smoking or drinking alcohol are extremely difficult to change at any age and are extremely difficult for those who have practiced them for a lifetime.

Trained and compulsive behavioral psychology has serious implications for parents who find they have to live in their new and foreign environment with new rules and relationships of power.

Information acquisition:

Older people have a persistent neural background that makes it more difficult for them to organize and interpret complex senses

input. In talking to an older person one should turn off the TV, eliminate as much noise and noise as possible, speak slowly

and relate to one message or idea at a time.

Memories of the past are far stronger than recent ones. New memories are the first to fade and the last to return.

Time patterns can also be mixed and new can be mixed.


Intelligence reaches its peak and can remain high with slight deterioration without neurological damage. People with unusually high intelligence to begin with seem to have the slightest decline. Education and stimulation also seem to play a role in maintaining intelligence.

Intellectual decline. The two oldest diseases that cause cognitive decline are Alzheimer's Syndrome and Pick syndrome. In Pick syndrome there is an inability to concentrate and learn and affect affective reactions.

Degenerative Disease: Slow progressive physical deterioration of cells in the nervous system. Genetics seems to be an important factor. It usually starts after the age of 40 (but can be as early as the 20s).

ALZHEIMER DISEASE Decrease in all areas of the cortex but especially the frontal and temporal lobe. The affected cells actually die. Early symptoms resemble neurotic disorders: Anxiety, depression, difficulty sleeping.

The progressive deterioration of all intellectual faculties (the most notable and obvious lack of memory). As the brain mass decreases, the ventricle becomes larger. No treatment has been established.

DISEASES OF PICK Rarely degenerative disease. Similar to Alzheimer's in terms of its origin, symptoms and genetic possibilities

aetiology. However, it affects the affected areas of the brain, especially the frontal area which leads to loss of normal affect.

PARKINSON'S DISEASE Neuropathology: Loss of neurons in the basal ganglia.

Symptoms: Abnormal movements: Rhythmic swelling, eyelids and tongue along with muscle tightness and slow movement (akinesia).

It was once thought that Parkinson's disease was not associated with intellectual deterioration, but it is now known that there is a link between global intellectual disability and Parkinson's where it occurs later in life.

Cells lost in Parkinson's are associated with Dopamine neuro-chemical and Parkinson's motor symptoms associated with dopamine deficiency. Treatment involves the initial administration of L-dopa dopamine which can reduce symptoms including intellectual disability. Research suggests it may lead to pre-existing emotional effects on existing patients

psychiatric illness early in their lives.

DOMAIN AFFECTIVE In the old age of the concept of ourselves we get a final review. We make the ultimate assessment of the value of our lives and balance our successes and failures.

How well a person adapts to old age may be influenced by how well they adjust to an earlier change. If the person is experiencing an emotional crisis every time a significant change is needed, adjusting for the delay of the age can also be difficult. Factors such as economic security, geographical location and physical health are important for the process of adjustment.

Needs Compliance: For all of us, according to Maslow's Needs Hierarchy theory, we are not free to pursue higher needs than self-actualization unless basic needs are guaranteed. When one considers that many, perhaps most of the elderly live in poverty and continue to be concerned about basic living needs, they may not be the ones to be satisfied with prestige, achievement and beauty.

The Maslow hierarchy



Belonging, love, identification

Price: Achievement, prestige, success, self-respect

Self-actualization: Expressing one's interests and talents fully.

Note: Parents who have achieved their basic needs may be motivated to perform the highest level of tasks in the hierarchy - activities related to aesthetics, creativity and altruistic matters, as compensation for loss of sexual attractiveness and sports. Older care workers who are pressured to get their parents to focus on social activities can only be frustrated and frustrated if their basic life worries are not guaranteed to their satisfaction.


Social aging according to Cumming, E. and Henry, W. (Growing old: the process of aging delayed, NY, Basic 1961) follows a clear pattern:

1. Role change. Changes in employment and productivity. It might change

in the attitude of working.

2. Loss of role, e.g. retirement or death of a husband.

3. Reduce social interaction. By losing the role of social interaction is

decreases, eccentric adjustments can further reduce social interactions, damage

to self-concept, depression.

4. Awareness of the shortage of time left. This leads to further reductions

activities for the sake of saving time.

Havighurst, R. et al (in B. Neugarten (ed.) Middle Ages and Aging, U. of Chicago, 1968) and others have suggested that resignation is not an inevitable process. They believe that the old needs are basically the same as the middle ages and that middle age activities should be expanded as much as possible. Havighurst shows a decline in parents' social interactions often

as a result of society withdrawing from the individual instead. In order to combat this, he believes that the individual must strongly oppose the limits of his social world.

DEATH The fears of the dead in the tribal society are stinging. People who have served the dead are taboo and have to adhere to various rituals including separation for different periods of time. In some societies from South America to Australia it is taboo for certain people to mention the name of the dead. Widows and widows are expected to keep the ritual in respect of the dead.

Widows in the New Guinea Plateau around Goroka cut one of their own fingers. The dead continue their existence as spirits and disturb them can have devastating consequences.

Wahl, C in "Fear of death", 1959 states that death fears occur as early as the 3rd year of life. When a child loses fear of an animal or grandma lives up to the unanswered question: Am I causing it? Will it happen to you (parents) soon? Is this happening to me? Children in such circumstances need to make sure that their departure is not wrong, and that parents are not likely to leave soon. Love, sadness, guilt, anger are all mixed emotions.


Our culture places high value on youth, beauty, high status jobs, social classes and future activities and achievements. Aging and death are rejected and avoided in this system. Everyone's death reminds us of our own death.

The death of the elderly is less disturbing to Western society because the elderly are less valued. Surveys have established that nurses, for example, attach more importance to saving young lives than old ones. In Western society there is a tendency to avoid dealing with elderly and dying patients.

The stage is off. Elisabeth Kubler Ross specializes in working with dying patients and in "On death and death", NY, Macmillan, 1969, summarizes 5 stages in death.

1. Disclaimer and exile. "No, not me".

2. Anger. "I've lived a good life so why me?"

3. Bargaining. Secret deals are attacked with God. "If I can live up to ... I promise ..."

4. Depression. (Generally, the biggest psychological problem of age is depression). Depression is a real and endangered loss.

5. The inevitable reception.

Ross's typography as mentioned above, I believe will be taken with a grain of salt and not received with respect. US journalist David Rieff who on June '08 was a guest of the Sydney writer's book in relation to his book, "Swimming in the sea of ​​death: a children's memoir" (Melbourne University Press) explicitly denied the authenticity of Typhoon Ross in his Late Night Live interview ( Australian radio ABC) with Philip Adams Jun 9 & 08; He said something that meant his mother considered his death a homicide. My own experience with the dead shows that the human ego is very resilient. I remember visiting a colleague who died in the hospital just days before his death. He said, "I'm dying, I don't like it but there's nothing I can do about it", and then went through how senior academics at an Adelaide university told him they had sent him the Australian Order (Australia's new "Knighthood") . Falling in and out of clear thinking with the oxygen tube in his nostrils, he was still very interested in "the futility of the world". This observation seems to me to be consistent with Rieff's negative evaluation of Kubler Ross's theory.


Sharing age with young people has the same needs: However, parents often have less or less resources to meet those needs. Their need for social interaction can be ignored by family and care workers.

Families need to take time to visit their family members and invite them to their home. People like that want to visit children and connect with them through games and stories.

Meaningful relationships can be developed through the foster-parent program. Some people are not aware of their income and health rights. Family and friends should take the time to explain this. Some people are too proud to access their rights and this issue should be addressed in a good way.

It is best that parents are allowed as much choice as possible in matters of living arrangements, social life and lifestyle.

Communities that serve the elderly need to provide for the elderly through things like reductions, and low ramps.

Guardians need to examine their own attitudes to aging and death. The denial of guardianship is detected by older people and it can prevent older people from expressing negative feelings - fear, anger. If the person is able to express this feeling to someone, then the person is less likely to die with isolation and bitterness.


The following notes are my interpretation of Dr Depak Chopra's lecture entitled, "New Physics of Medicine" presented at the 13th American Holistic Science Medical Conference. Dr Depak Chopra is an endocrinologist and former Chief of Staff of the New England, Massachusetts Hospital. I deliberately do not elaborate on his explanation of more abstract, outdated and controversial ideas.

Original material from 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

In Dr. Lecture's lecture Chopra presents the model of the universe and all organisms as structures of electromagnetic energy-interacting centers in such a way that anything that affects one part of the system or structure has predictions throughout the whole structure. This model is analogous not only to what happens in the structure or organism itself, but between the organism and its physical and social environment. In other words, there is a relationship between psychology

condition, health and aging process. Dr. Chopra in his lectures reconciled ancient Vedic philosophy (Hinduism) with modern psychology and quantum physics.

Premature Precognitive Commitment: Dr. Chopra called an experiment showing that flies stored for a long time in a jar do not quickly leave the jar when the top is taken into account. Instead they accept the jar as the limit of their universe. He also noted that in India baby elephants are often linked to small twigs or saplings. In adulthood when an elephant is able to attract a medium-sized tree, it can still be attached to the twigs! As another example, he points to experiments in which fish are bred

2 sides of a fish tank containing dividers between the two sides. When the fishermen are thrown away slowly they know they can now swim across the entire tank but stay in the part they accept as their universe. Other experiments have shown that kittens are raised in striped environments and vertical structures, when released in adulthood and continue to cross anything that is aligned horizontally as if they cannot see anything horizontally. Instead, cats are raised in a horizontal strip environment when released into a vertical structure, apparently unable to see them.

The whole point of the experiment above is that they show a premature prognostic commitment. The lesson to be learned is that our senses have evolved as a result of our early experiences and how we have been taught to interpret them.

What does the world look like? It doesn't exist. The way the world looks to us is determined by the sensory receptors we have and our interpretations of that appearance are determined by our premature cognitive commitment. Dr Chopra makes the point that less than a billion stimuli exist that make it our nervous system. Mostly discounted, and what we get is whatever we have

expect to search based on our prognostic commitment.

Dr. Chopra also discusses actual illnesses caused by mainstream medical intervention, but this material is far from my central intention. Dr Chopra discusses the physics terms of matter, energy and time by creating a broader context of our existence. He made the point that our bodies, including plants, were mirrors of cosmic rhythms and exhibitions of changes related to the tides.

Dr. Chopra quotes Dr. Herbert Spencer of the US National Institute of Health. He injected the mice with Poly-IC, an immuno stimulant while repeatedly giving the rat a kiss of barley. After the Poly-IC impression was applied, he again exposed the rat to the smell of camphor. The smell of camphor has the effect of causing the immune system of the mouse to automatically strengthen

as if they were injected with stimulants. He then took another group of mice and injected them with cyclophosphamide that tended to destroy the immune system while exposing them to camphor odor. Then after being returned to normal only the camphor odor is sufficient to cause their immune system to be destroyed. Dr Chopra stressed whether or not camphor was improved or

destroying the immune system of the rat is completely determined by the interpretation of camphor odor. Interpretation is not just in the brain but in every cell of the organism. We are tied to our imagination and ours

early experience.

Chopra cited a study by the Massachusetts Dept of Health Education and Welfare as a risk factor for heart disease - family history, cholesterol and more. The two most important risk factors are identified as psychological measures - Levels of Happiness and Job Satisfaction. They found that most people died from heart disease on Monday!

Chopra says that for every feeling there are molecules. If you experience relaxation your body will produce natural valium. The chemical changes in the brain are reflected by changes in other cells including blood cells. The brain produces neuropeptides and the brain structure is chemically adapted to this neuropeptide receptor. Neuropeptides (neurotransmitters) are chemical compounds of thought. Chopra shows that white blood cells (part of the immune system) have neuropeptide receptors and "eavesdrop" our thinking. Instead, the immune system produces its own neuropeptides that can affect the nervous system. He goes on to say that cells in all parts of the body including the heart and kidneys for example produce neuropeptides and

neuropeptide sensitivity. Chopra assures us that most neurologists will agree that the nervous system and the immune system are parallel systems.

Other Physiological Studies: The blood-2 levels of medical students' interactin levels decrease as the examination period approaches and their interlukin receptor capacity decreases. Chopra says if we have fun with the thrill of natural levels of interlukin-2 we get higher. Interlukin-2 is a very expensive and very expensive anti-cancer drug. The body is the mold of consciousness. If we can change the way we look at our body in a sincere way, then our body will actually change.

On the subject of "time" Chopra quotes Sir Thomas Gall and Steven Hawkins, stating that our picture of the universe as the past, present, and future is entirely based on our interpretation of change. But deep down

Linear realities do not exist.

Chopra describes the work of Alexander Leaf as a former Harvard Preventive Medicine Professor who has visited the world of sociology where people have lived for more than 100 years (this includes parts of Afghanistan, Soviet Georgia, the South Andes). He looks at possible factors including climate, genetics, and diet. Leaf concludes that the most important factor is the collective perception of aging in this society.

Among the Tama Humara in the South Andes there is the older collective belief you get the more physically you can get. Mereka mempunyai tradisi berlari dan yang lebih tua menjadi pada umumnya lebih baik dalam menjalankan satu. Pelari terbaik berusia 60 tahun. Keupayaan paru-paru dan langkah-langkah lain sebenarnya bertambah baik dengan usia. Orang ramai sihat hingga ke 100-an dan meninggal dunia dalam tidur mereka. Chopra menyatakan bahawa perkara telah berubah sejak pengenalan Budweiser (bir) dan TV.

(PERBINCANGAN: Bagaimanakah TV boleh menjadi faktor dalam mengubah keadaan ideal dahulu?)

Chopra merujuk kepada Dr Ellen Langor yang merupakan bekas profesor Psikologi Harvard. Langor diiklankan untuk 100 sukarelawan berumur lebih dari 70 tahun. Dia membawa mereka ke Biara di luar Boston untuk bermain "Let's Pretend". Mereka dibahagikan kepada 2 kumpulan yang masing-masing tinggal di bahagian lain bangunan. Satu kumpulan, kumpulan kawalan menghabiskan beberapa hari bercakap mengenai tahun 1950-an. Kumpulan yang lain, kumpulan eksperimen terpaksa hidup seolah-olah pada tahun 1959 dan bercakap mengenainya di masa sekarang. Apa yang muncul di skrin TV mereka adalah siaran berita lama dan filem. Mereka membaca surat khabar lama dan majalah zaman itu. Selepas 3 hari semua orang telah diambil gambar dan gambar-gambar yang diadili oleh hakim bebas yang tidak mengetahui jenis eksperimen itu. Kumpulan percubaan seolah-olah

telah mendapat lebih muda dalam penampilan. Langor kemudian mengatur agar mereka diuji untuk 100 parameter penuaan fisiologi yang termasuk tekanan darah kursus, penglihatan mata dan tahap DHEA. Selepas 10 hari hidup seolah-olah pada tahun 1959 semua parameter telah dibalikkan dengan bersamaan sekurang-kurangnya 20 tahun.

Chopra menyimpulkan dari eksperimen Langor: "Kami adalah produk akhir metabolik pengalaman deria kita. Bagaimana kita menafsirkannya bergantung kepada pola pikir kolektif yang mempengaruhi entropi biologi individu dan penuaan."

Bolehkah seseorang melepaskan minda kolektif semasa dan menuai faedah dalam umur panjang dan kesihatan? Langor berkata, masyarakat tidak akan membiarkan anda melarikan diri. Terdapat terlalu banyak peringatan bagaimana kebanyakan orang berfikir masa lurus dan bagaimana ia menyatakan dirinya dalam entropi dan penuaan - lelaki nakal pada 40 dan pada kebajikan sosial pada 55, wanita mencapai menopause di 40 dan lain-lain. Kita dapat melihat begitu banyak orang lain penuaan dan mati bahawa ia menetapkan corak yang kita ikuti.

Chopra concludes we are the metabolic product of our sensory experience and our interpretation gets structured in our biology itself. Real change comes from change in the collective consciousness - otherwise it cannot occur within the individual.


Chopra, D. The New Physics of Healing. 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

Coleman, J. C. Abnormal psychology and modern life. Scott Foresman & Co.

Lugo, J. and Hershey, L. Human development a multidisciplinary approach to the psychology of individual growth, NY, Macmillan.

Dennis. Psychology of human behaviour for nurses. Lond. W. B.Saunders.


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