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Factors Influencing Weight Loss and How to Maximize Weight Loss

The number one goal of 90% of my clients is losing weight. Some people are obese and need to lose enough weight for health reasons and others with a healthy BMI just want to get rid of a few pounds to look and feel better (we all want six pack abs). Weight depends on how much energy you use to do work (that is, to move, digest food, think and so on) compared to how much energy is consumed and stored (calorie intake). Energy is constant so if the energy output (work done) is greater than the energy input (calories consumed) there will be a negative energy balance that forces the body to utilize fat to cope with the deficit. Energy output consists of a person's metabolic or basal rate (BMR), which is the amount of calories a person uses during a break, and an active metabolic rate (AMR), which is the amount of calories a person consumes when they combine their movements. If you want to lose fat then you need to create a negative daily calorie balance by limiting your calorie intake or increasing your BMR and AMR or a combination of both.

There are several factors that influence BMR, AMR and weight loss. BMR is influenced by body composition, age, sex, stress level, body type (or somatotype), hormone and food intake. AMR is influenced by activity level. Negative energy balance is created by controlling your calorie intake. All this should be done carefully to achieve your weight loss goals without affecting your health or muscle loss.

The higher the percentage of body fat the faster the rate of weight loss. I've been training obese people around 40% of their body fat which can be reduced to £ 3 a week by following a strict program. However, if you are around 15% of body fat then the exponential weight loss rate is lower. At the risk of losing 1 pound per week (the typical amount is 0.5 pounds / week). Having a higher percentage of muscles also contributes to faster but not much fat loss by many. The common misconception is that 20x muscle is more metabolically active than fat and therefore having more muscle increases your BMR accordingly. Recent studies have found that 1 pound of muscle burns about 6 calories a day, not 50 calories as believed. It's still higher than fat tissue that burns 2 calories per pound per day.

A person's age and gender also affect the rate of weight loss. As you get older, your metabolism slows down because your body tends to lose muscle and gain fat which slows down your ability to burn calories. However, this can be weakened by regular cardio, strength training and healthy eating. There is little difference between men and women because men have more testosterone that helps build muscle and so men have a higher BMR than women on average because they have more muscle.

Mental and physical stress levels affect fat loss. Cortisol is a hormone released when the body is under stress such as in a struggle or flight. It acts as a biological function to release energy by breaking down fat and muscle tissue during a stressful event so that the body can use it to fight or escape. However, in today's society we do not use that energy to fight or escape and therefore are re-deposited into fat around the abdominal area. Prolonged stress can increase the level of cortisol rest so it is very difficult to burn fat in the stomach area.

Humans come in three different types of bodies or somatotypes genetically: ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph. This type of body is a continuum of body composition and the ability to gain or lose weight (whether muscle or fat). Ectomorphs have the smallest body mass (consisting of fat, muscle and bone). Ectomorphs tend to be tall and thin and have difficulty gaining weight because they have fast metabolism. Weight loss for ectomorphs is not an issue but muscle gain is. Mesomorphs have an average body mass and can easily change their body composition. Mesomorphs have intermediate metabolic rates. Endomorphs have the largest body mass and tend to lose weight easily. Endomorphs have great difficulty in burning fat because they have the slowest metabolism.

BMR is influenced by the levels of thyroid hormone and catecholamine epinephrine and nor-epinephrine. Thyroid hormones are body temperature that increases thermogenic and BMR. People with hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormone) have a very slow metabolism, tend to lose fat easily and have difficulty losing fat. People with hypertension (high levels of thyroid hormone) have a very fast metabolism, tend to be skinny and have weight problems. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for stimulating and utilizing energy for use during stress or stimulation. The main hormones that activate the sympathetic nervous system are epinephrine (adrenaline) and non-epinephrine. Both of these hormones increase heart rate and contraction speed, increase blood flow to muscles, suppress hunger, and use the body to break down fat and glycogen to produce glucose. Most weight loss pills are stimulants that increase the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Caffeine is often used on weight loss pills along with other stimulants as it improves cardiac output, helps the body use fat as a fuel source by increasing epinephrine levels, and suppressing hunger.

Food intake has the biggest impact on basal metabolic rate. The body needs to develop energy when it digests and processes food. This is called the effect of thermogensis-induced diet or diet. The quantity and type of food consumed affects how much energy it takes to process food. Research shows that proteins are more difficult to process than fat and have higher thermal effects. Thus increasing the amount of protein in your diet will increase your BMR. High fiber foods such as celery and grapefruit are the most difficult to process and have the highest thermal effects. These foods also have what is called a negative calorie balance because they take more energy to digest than energy released from digestion.

Increasing the level of physical activity increases AMR. The more active you are the more calories you will need. The type of activity you do and the duration and intensity of the activity affect how much extra calories are needed and from what source of food these calories come from.

Contrary to popular belief that intensity and duration of cardiovascular activity do not burn more fat than shorter intensity cardio periods. Many studies have shown that high intensity interval training (where the heart rate is between 80-90% maximum) is more effective for fat loss than low intensity endurance activities as the body needs to make up for the oxygen deficit generated during exercise and it burns calories up to two hours after you stop exercising. This phenomenon is called postoperative oxygen consumption (EPOC). Resistance training is also recommended to lose fat because not only the energy needed during the workout but also after the workout as the body needs to repair and build new muscles and this requires energy. Weight-bearing activities or lower resistance levels and lower rep numbers per set are recommended for light weight activities and higher rep counts per set because lifting heavier weights creates more microtrauma in the muscle which is a stimulus for repair and synthesis.

Carbohydrates are the main source of fuel for the body and they are the only fuel source besides ketones that the brain can use. While fat and protein must be transformed into an intermediate form before it can be used as fuel. Before, during, and after the higher intensity physical activity of the body requires carbohydrates if the blood sugar becomes too low and one is crushed, nauseated and discarded. Carbohydrates and proteins are required to build muscle after weight training. Therefore, when incorporating physical activity into a weight loss program, the body will need an adequate supply of protein and carbohydrates. I have found that when incorporating cardio and higher intensity resistance training into a fat loss program, a person's diet should be about 35% carbohydrate, 45% protein, and 20% fat and the maximum daily calorie deficit should not exceed 750 calories.

To burn fat one must maintain proper calorie intake. Exercise alone is not enough without a daily calorie deficit. Fat tissue is the medium that the body uses to store energy. One pound of fat holds 3500 calories so 3500 calories should be used to burn one pound of fat. To burn fat one has to eat fewer calories daily than to eat regularly to maintain their current weight. If someone eats 500 calories less each day then they can lose 1 pound of fat in 7 days. The rate of 1 pound per week is widely recognized by health and fitness professionals as a safe and healthy weight loss. Hungry diets (anything above 1000 calories deficit) are unhealthy because the body burns more muscle than fat (fat is needed as a source of energy when food is scarce) and because the body lacks the amount of vitamins, minerals, essential antioxidants and other phytonutrients that make us be healthy.

Now that you have a better idea of ​​the factors involved in metabolism and fat loss you can include some in your weight loss program. However, a professional weight loss program combines many of these factors at the same time and these factors must be balanced to achieve optimal fat loss without damaging essential nutrients and losing muscle and strength. I designed a personalized fat loss program (I take into account your metabolic profile, activity level, and other physical attributes) and comprehensive (I take several factors that attack fat from every angle).



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